MinMars/Logistics

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Repository of Working Models

http://svn.developspace.net/svn/minmars/users/arthur/Logistics/ http://svn.developspace.net/svn/minmars/users/arthur/Purification/

Preliminary Logistics Assessment

General Study Objectives

  • Carry out an assessment of re-supply needs for the outpost given different technologies
    • Including high-closure life support, ISRU
  • Identify key re-supply drivers and carry out in-depth analyses
  • Identify interesting technologies with high payoff in re-supply mass reduction
    • Carry out initial modeling and testing of these technologies
  • Formulate plan for further technology development

Preliminary Re-Supply Assessment (1)

Preliminary Re-Supply Assessment (1)
Preliminary Re-Supply Assessment (1)

Preliminary Re-Supply Assessment (2)

Preliminary Re-Supply Assessment (2)
Preliminary Re-Supply Assessment (2)

Preliminary Insights

  • Existing technologies allow for re-supply masses per opportunity of under 2 mt / person
  • Remaining high-mass re-supply items are food and spare parts
    • These should be focus of in-depth analyses

Updated Logistics Assessment

General Study Objectives

  • Carry out an assessment of re-supply needs for the outpost given different technologies
    • Including high-closure life support, ISRU
  • Identify key re-supply drivers and carry out in-depth analyses
  • Identify interesting technologies with high payoff in re-supply mass reduction
    • Carry out initial modeling and testing of these technologies
  • Formulate plan for further technology development

Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 1-5

IMars Surface Habitat Architectures 1-5
Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 1-5

Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 5-9

Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 5-9
Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 5-9

Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 9-13

Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 9-13
Mars Surface Habitat Architectures 9-13

Preliminary Insights

  • Existing technologies allow for re-supply masses per opportunity of ~2mt / person
    • This includes fairly conservative tare fractions on pressurized logistics and fluid re-supply
  • Remaining high-mass re-supply items are:
  • Food
  • Spare parts (fans, multi-filtration beds, etc.)
  • Hygiene & health re-supply (soap, first-aid, etc.)
  • Hydrogen for ISRU

Food Logistics Reduction

  • Many options for closure of the food loop have been investigated over the decades
  • Two major families of option:
    • 1. Chemical regeneration of food from waste
      • Synthesized chemicals suitable for long-term ingestion include: glucose, glycerin, ethanol, formose sugars
    • 2. Biological regeneration of food from waste
      • Algae (also for CO2 regeneration)
      • Higher plants (wheat, corn, vegetables, etc.)
      • Animals (fish, chicken)

Food Sourcing

  • Reminder: food remains one of the largest re-supply items (strong incentive for achieving higher closure)
  • Ways to close the food loop (in order of difficulty)
    • Growing fruits / vegetables with aeroponics / hydroponics
    • Growing algae, subsequent processing into edible form
    • Growing edible fungi (for some types no light required)
    • Traditional soil agriculture using Martian soil / regolith
    • Breeding animals (chicken, fish; both still quite inefficient)
    • Chemical regeneration of foods (formose, lipids, starch etc.)
    • Analysis required to determine which ways are most effective during different stages of colony
  • Notional roadmap as point of departure:
    • Phase 1:
      • Food mostly imported from Earth in de-hydrated form
      • Some fruits and vegetables grown hydro- / aeroponically to supplement de-hydrated food (nutrients brought from Earth)
      • Possibly use of some fungi / algae as nutrition supplement
    • Phase 2:
      • Food partially imported from Earth, partially generated locally
      • In-situ nutrient production, use of Martian soil
      • Possibly use of some fungi / algae as nutrition supplement
    • Phase 3:
      • Food mostly produced on Mars using in-situ nutrients and soil
      • Algae and fungi as supplement, possibly also some animals
      • Predominantly vegetarian life-style

Surface Manufacturing

Surface Manufacturing Strategy

  • Major needs during the early toehold stage:
    • Manufacturing of spare parts for subsystems
    • Manufacturing of IVA / EVA tools
    • Possibly manufacturing of structure for expansion of pressurized volume and for ISCP
  • Materials than can be produced in-situ on Mars:
    • Polyethylene (PE) and other polymers (from RWGS)
    • Iron / steel (significant infrastructure required)
    • Ceramics and bricks (from baking regolith)
    • Aluminum (significant infrastructure required)
    • Copper (significant infrastructure required)
  • Chapter 7 in Zubrin’s case for Mars provides a good overview
  • Quantitative assessment of infrastructure required
  • Acquiring water on Mars
    • 4 possible sources:
      • Underground aquifer
      • Topsoil (1-3% by weight)
      • Atmosphere
      • Permafrost
  • Extraction from topsoil and atmosphere may be easiest initially (less infrastructure)
    • Could use tent-like structure, condenser, and sunlight (concept by Zubrin)
  • Water provides breathing oxygen and hydrogen for further ISCP (also PE)
  • It has been proposed to synthesize PE based on products from RWGS:
    • 6H2+2CO2=>2H2O+2CO+4H2
    • 2CO+4H2=>C2H4+2H2O
    • n x C2H4 => PE
  • We need to carry out a more detailed analysis of these processes

Minimal Industrial Needs for a Minimal Mars Colony - A Home O'Centric Insight (By: Andrew Tubbiolo)

  • What is a colony? It is a home.
    • Terrestrial Home
      • Constant influx of goods.
      • Constant influx of food.
      • Constant efflux of waste.
    • Colonial Home
      • Constant need to manufacture or remanufacture goods.
      • Production of food and air
      • Reprocessing of waste
  • Means of Manufacturing is the Linchpin
    • What do you need to manufacture goods?
    • What do you need to make the tools to grow food?
    • What do you need to make the tools to reprocess and reuse waste streams?
    • You need tools.
  • What Kind of Tools?
  • Mechanical
  • Electrical

Mechanical Ensemble

  • The Lathe.
    • Work rotates.
    • Tool moves about work.
    • Machines conical sections
    • Holds accuracy to 0.001”
    • Can make parts for engines in the tens of kilowatt class
  • The Mill
    • Tool rotates
    • Work is moved about the tool.
    • Used to machine planer sections.
    • Machines to 0.001”.
    • Up to tens of kilowatt class machines.
  • Surface grinder
    • Tool rotates
    • Work moved about tool
    • Machines planer surfaces
    • Accuracy to 0.0001”

Electrical Ensemble.

  • EDA Tools.
    • Specify system needs.
    • Schematic capture.
    • Simulation.
    • PCB Layout
  • Circuit Prototype
    • Test ideas and concepts in a manner that allows fast changes.
  • PCB Fabrication
    • Manufacture permanent solution on site
  • Test Equipment
    • Logic Analyzer
      • Monitor many channels logic state simultaneously
    • Oscilloscope
      • Monitor signals to high resolution
    • EDA PC Environment
      • Project documents

Putting it all together

  • Terrestrial thermal power source project rated at 500+ W
    • Aluminum foundry
    • Thermal engine power source
    • Thermal refrigeration power source
    • Power source for a small boiler
  • Mechanical Mounts
    • Integration sphere interface
      • Fast on demand fabrication
      • Allows reactions to needs not foreseen
  • Propulsion
    • A tall order for sure, but on Mars even simple propulsion systems can be quite effective.
  • Constant Needs of Colonial Industry
    • Support Systems
      • Power generation
      • Atmosphere generation
      • Raw materials
      • Food production
      • Transportation
      • Tool needs for goods requirements
    • Industrial Expansion
      • Use your tools to make more tools
      • Raw materials mining
      • Refinement
      • Component manufacturing
      • Tool manufacturing

Conclusion

  • Tools make the colony.
  • Tools provide the goods needed to support human life.
  • Tools provide the means to make new tools.
  • Tools provide means to expand.
  • Colonizing is an effort in tool making and operations.
  • Engineered systems can be built integrated and tested in the terrestrial home.
  • Colonize the home as a prelude to Mars.

Water Recycling / Spares Management

Introduction

  • A review of the major methods for water recycling.
  • The spares needs for the different technologies are identified
  • The future work will consist in completing the estimates of the spares amounts for the different technologies

Water recycling methods

Distillation (phase change processes)

  • Vapor compression distillation (VCD)
  • Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation (TIMES)
  • Vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal (VAPCAR)
  • Other

Filtration

  • Reverse osmosis (RO)
  • Multifiltration
  • Other

Differences between distillation and filtration

  • Higher quality water (i.e. potable) is usually recycled using distillation, because it is a process conducted at higher temperatures (phase change) thus killing bacteria. Lower quality water (i.e. flush water) is recycled by filtration.

Distillation Systems Spares Needs

  • Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD)
    • H2O Pre-treatment expendable chemicals
    • H2O Post-treatment expendable chemicals
    • Components of Evaporator, Condenser, Condensate collector
  • Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES)
    • H2O Pre-treatment expendable chemicals
    • H2O Post-treatment expendable chemicals
    • Thermoelectric Heat Pump
    • Hollow fiber membranes
  • Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VAPCAR)
    • No expendable chemicals
    • Hollow fiber membranes
    • Catalyst beds

VCD Data [Ref Zdankiewicz & Chu]

  • Component: Distillation Unit
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 18400
      • In Normal Mode: 8012
    • Mass [kg]: 16
    • Vol, [m^3]: 28.4
  • Component: Liquid Level Sensor
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 17200
      • In Normal Mode: 6812
    • Mass [kg]: ???
    • Vol, [m^3]: ???
  • Component: Still Drive Motor
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 5512
      • In Normal Mode: 5512
    • Mass [kg]: ???
    • Vol, [m^3]: ???
  • Component: Fluids Pump
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 18400
      • In Normal Mode: 7012
    • Mass [kg]: 6.4
    • Vol, [m^3]: 9.3
  • Component: Peristaltic Tubing
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 17520
      • In Normal Mode: 7012
    • Mass [kg]: ???
    • Vol, [m^3]: ???
  • Component: Waste Storage Tank
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 14600
      • In Normal Mode: 6812
    • Mass [kg]: ???
    • Vol, [m^3]: ???
  • Component: Recycle/Filter Tank
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 10900
      • In Normal Mode: 6812
    • Mass [kg]: 5.9
    • Vol, [m^3]: 72.3
  • Component: Ancillary Components (valves, sensors, plumbing)
    • Demonstrated Life [hr]
      • Direct Exposure to Environment: 16380
      • In Normal Mode: 5992
    • Mass [kg]: ???
    • Vol, [m^3]: ???
  • VCD is sized to process 18.1 kg/d of liquid waste to meet the needs of a three-person crew;
  • Recycle tank (the one in the table is the dry weight) sized for 90-day operation at 0.18 kg/p/d of solids to meet the needs of a three-person crew;
  • Packaging overhead is 12%.

Filtration Systems Spares Needs

  • Reverse Osmosis
    • Membranes. Alternatives:
      • Inside skinned hollow fiber membrane
      • Dual layer membrane
    • Multifiltration
      • Filters
      • Ion-exchange resin beds
      • Charcoal

References

  • Budininkas, P., Rasouli, F. and Wydeven, T. Development of a Water Recovery Subsystem Based on Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) 1986
  • Dehner, G. F., Reysa, R. P. Thermoelectric Integration Membrane Evaporation Subsystem Water Recovery Technology Update 1985
  • Dehner, G. F., Winkler, E. H. and Reysa, R. P. Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem Operational Improvements 1984
  • Gorensek, M. B., Baer-Peckham, D. Space Station Water Recovery Trade Study - Phase Change Technology 1988
  • Herrmann, C. C. High-Recovery Low-Pressure Reverse Osmosis 1992
  • Hitt, A. J., III, Renfro, R. H., Schien, K. F. and Streams, E. Criteria Definition and Performance Testing of a Space Station Experiment Water Management System 1988
  • Ishida, H., Ohshima, M., Shimoda, T. and Shiraishi, A. Development of Low Pressure Membrane Distillation 1998
  • Noble, L. D. J., Schubert, F. H. and Graves, R. E. An Assessment of the Readiness of Vapor Compression Distillation for Spacecraft Wastewater Processing 1991
  • Ray, R. Membrane-Based Water and Energy-Recovery Systems for the Manned Space Station 1985
  • Ray, R. J., Babcock, W. C., Barss, R. P., Andrews, T. A. and LaChapelle, E. D. A Novel Reverse-Osmosis Wash Water Recycle System for Manned Space Stations 1984
  • Reysa, R. P., Price, D. F., Olcott, T. and Gaddis, J. L. Hyperfiltration Wash Water Recovery Subsystem - Design and Test Results
  • Schubert, F. H. Phase Change Water Recovery Techniques: Vapor Compressor Distillation and Thermoelectric/Membrane Concepts 1983
  • Winkler, E. H., Verostko, C. E. and Dehner, G. F. Urine Pretreatment for Waste Water Processing Systems 1983
  • Zdankiewicz, E. M., Chu, J. Phase Change Water Recovery for Space Station - Parametric Testing and Analysis 1986

Vapor Compression Distillation Example

  • http://www.aquatechnology.net/vaporcompressiondistillers.html
    • Step 1: In a vapor compression(VC) system, the distillation process begins in the boiling chamber, just as it does in virtually any other distiller. What separates this method from other distillation methods is what comes after the boiling chamber.
    • Step 2: In a Vapor Compression VC6000, VC3000, VC1500 and VC800 system the boiling process begins with both heating elements turned on. As the water in the boiling chamber reaches near boiling temperatures, the compressor turns on, which engages the unique non-contacted liquid ring seal.When the boiling begins, the #2 heating element turns off and the #1 heating element cycles on and off maintaining the boiling at just the right temperature for maximum efficiency. The steam from the boiling water flows through a baffling system and then into the compressor.
    • Step 3: In the compressor, the steam is pressurized, which raises the steam's temperature before it is routed through a special heat exchanger located inside the boiling chamber. The steam (under pressure) is at a higher temperature than the feed water inside the boiling chamber
    • Step 4: The pressurized steam gives off its heat to the tap water inside the boiling chamber, causing this water to boil, which creates more steam. In technical terms, the steam "gives up its latent heat of vaporization" to the water inside the boiling chamber.
    • Step 5: While the pressurized steam is giving up its latent heat, the steam will condense. One of the heating elements will cycle on and off periodically as needed to provide any "make-up" heat that is required to keep the system operating at optimum temperature for maximum efficiency.
    • Step 6: At this stage, the condensed steam is considered distilled water but is still very hot--only slightly cooler than boiling temperature. To get maximum efficiency from the VC systems, the hot distilled water preheats the incoming feed water that will be distilled.