Human Mars Exploration Architecture Studies

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General References

  • The Mars Project [Wernher v. Braun 1962] The original human Mars mission design (chemical propulsion, conjunction class)

Round-Trip Human Mars Exploration

NASA Human Mars Mission Studies

Apollo-Era Mission Designs

Pre-SEI Human Mars Mission Studies

Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Human Mars Mission Studies

Mars Design Reference Mission Studies

  • NASA’s Decadal Planning Team - Mars Mission Analysis Summary, JSC-63725 [Drake BG (editor), released 2007]

Non-DRM Studies

  • Austere Human Mission to Mars (PDF) NASA JPL (H. Price et al) Minimalist Mars Design Reference Mission [Space 2009 AIAA Conference Paper] JPL minimalist round-trip mission study from 2009

Mars Mission Designs by Robert Zubrin

Inspiration Mars

The Inspiration Mars Foundation (IMF) is a non-for-profit organization dedicated to the goal of conducting a 2-person Mars flyby mission as a precursor to Mars surface missions. Originally, a 501-day Mars flyby mission with Earth departure in January 2018 was envisioned, but since 2014 a Mars-Venus flyby opportunity with Earth departure in 2021 has also been considered in the context of using NASA SLS and Orion-derived elements as part of the mission architecture (a 2021 Earth departure would facilitate the development schedule of these elements). The Mars flyby mission is envisioned to be carried out as a private-public partnership between IMF and NASA with a philantropic funding component

  • Mars flyby architecture study summary report (PDF) [November 2013] Summary of architecture study centered around using NASA SLS for launch of the Mars-flyby spacecraft stack, an Orion-derived entry capsule for Earth entry, and commercial crew and cargo elements for crew launch and in-flight habitation

Miscellaneous Mission Designs

  • MarsDrive Consortium Mission

Mars Colonization

Mars Colonization - Robert Zubrin

DevelopSpace MinMars Project

Mars One

Mars One is a not-for-profit foundation dedicated to the goal of establishing a permanent human settlement on Mars

Miscellaneous Mars Colonization References

  • One-way to Mars, George W. Herbert, AAS 96-322, The Case for Mars VI : Making Mars an Affordable Destination, Boulder, CO, 1996.